Who is validating instruments with the ozone process

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Stratospheric temperatures, gaseous nitric acid concentrations, and their relationship to ozone losses in the two hemispheres are also discussed to provide insights to chemical processes.

We include ozonesonde data for the region near 20 km altitude (50-mbar pressure), where the largest local Arctic losses are typically found, but also present results for other pressure levels.

Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres.

Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011.

METTLER TOLEDO sensor simulation kits are designed to help verify measurement loop setups.

Here we update and expand the comparison of ozone and related chemistry over the two polar regions.This information provides unique insights into the contrasts between Arctic and Antarctic ozone chemistry.We show that extreme Antarctic ozone minima fall to or below 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at 18 and 20 km (about 70 and 50 mbar) whereas the lowest Arctic ozone values are about 0.5 ppmv at these altitudes.Both average changes and the range of extreme values are presented, because these each provide important and distinct tests for physical and chemical understanding (just as in, for example, climate change studies).We first examine in situ ozone observations obtained by balloonsondes at ground stations.

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