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The researches concerning aboriginal food sources have been coupled witli other studies in native economics, including those pertaining to textiles used for clothing, birch bark used for canoes and habitations, the making of baskets, etc.

In most cases the immediate aim was to record the primitive customs and crafts as a contribution to knowledge ot a passing race, but the investigations have reached the stage of yielding useful lessons to the superior race.

Singularly, there are no trustworthy records of mestizos in this country, though their number must reach some 30 to 60 per cent of that of the pure-blood Indian population.

Nor is it to be forgotten that many of the practical problems connected with immigration, Chinese exclusion, the occupation of Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines, and the education of the colored race can be finally solved only in the light of ethnologic principles, whether these be developed through slow experience or derived from scientific; researches already advanced to the applicable stage These and other weighty considerations have led to the inauguration of researches in physical ethnology. It is well known that aboriginal America gave the world corn, the potato, certain beans and squashes, tobacco, two varieties of cotton, and the domestic turkey; it is not so well known that the native tribes utilized various other natural resources which might well be introduced into the dietary and commerce of Caucasian peoples; and still less is it realized that various prepared foods habitually used by the Indians are of unsurpassed excellence for while XII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY succotash and hominy have come into general use, the far superior pinole, tatnale, and pemmican are only locally used by whites, and many other desirable dishes are entirely neglected.

LANCJLEY, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 272259 -5* C N T E N T S REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Pae Introduction ix Scope of the work i x Field research and exploration x iv Office research xvm Work in somatology xvm \Vork in psychology xx Work in esthetology xxn Work in technology xxvi Work in sociology xxxii Work in philology x x x i v Work in sophiology x x x v 1 1 1 Descriptive ethnology XL Collections xi.i Property x i.i Publications xi.n Financial statement x 1,1 v Accompanying paper ACCOMPANYING PAPER The Xuiii Indians: Their Mythology, Esoteric Societies, and Ceremonies by Matilda Coxe Stevenson (Plates i-cxxix, figures 1-34) 1 v REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR VII TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OK TIIK BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY J. POWELL, DIRECTOR INTRODUCTION Ethnologic researches have been conducted by the Bureau of American Ethnology during the fiscal year ending June 30.

SCOPE OF THE WORK The researches of the year were conducted in accordance with an ethnic system set forth in earlier reports.

The application requires a statistical study of physical characteristics, including- viability, industrial aptitude, etc., of typical Indian tribes, together with a similar stud v -of mixed bloods, or mestizos, botli conducted with a view of com parison with Caucasian and other ethnic norms.As announced in recent reports, productive studies of the begin ning of agriculture and zooculture have been conducted.During the fiscal year a memoir on Wild Rice, by Dr Jenks, was published, with a view of directing attention to a natural resource giving promise of value to modern agri culture; Dr Russell spent the greater part of the year in a critical study of a typical tribe of the arid region (the Pima Indians), and has prepared a memoir on their industries for early publication; a systematic investigation of the birch-bark industries of the aborigines was taken up by Dr Jenks; and Dr Fewkes devoted a part of the year to a special study of XIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY the aboriginal economy of Porto Rico, with particular refer ence to the artifacts and customs still extant, and giving promise of future value to that newly acquired territory.The impor tance of this line of inquiry is suggested by the fact that there are no physical statistics on record of any tribe of our passing race available for comparing stature, strength, endurance, via- bility, fecundity, and other physical attributes, with those of Caucasians, either with the view of gratifying our instinctive desire for knowledge or with the object of deriving useful information from the experience of other peoples.The impor tance of inquiries concerning mestizos is sufficiently indicated by the history of a neighboring Republic, whose president is at once a product of the blended blood of the white and red races and one of the foremost among the world s national leaders.

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